An Integrative Analysis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Recently, a reader reached out to me regarding a public figure who has been diagnosed with ALS, seeking insights and assistance. In response, I’ve prepared a comprehensive integrative analysis of ALS. This complex condition, similar to other chronic diseases, arises from multiple factors. Implementing a multifaceted and early intervention strategy is critical. Such an approach offers a significant possibility of enhancing quality of life and decelerating the progression of ALS, and it may even hold potential for reversing the course of the disease.

Abstract: This comprehensive review explores various factors and therapeutic strategies in the context of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It emphasizes the significant role of oxidative stress in both familial and sporadic ALS, exacerbated by environmental factors like heavy metals and pesticides. The study examines the potential links between heavy metal exposure, glyphosate in herbicides, and the risk of ALS, suggesting that these factors contribute to the disease’s progression through oxidative damage and immunomodulatory changes. It also discusses dietary considerations, such as the impact of ultra-processed foods and omega-6 fatty acids, highlighting the benefits of a ketogenic diet and the potential neuroprotective actions of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen. The review delves into the role of antioxidants and high-dose vitamins B1, B12, C, and D3, noting their varied efficacy and the need for further research. Additionally, it explores emerging treatments like photobiomodulation therapy and methylene blue, underscoring the necessity for more extensive clinical trials to establish their effectiveness in ALS management.

Oxidative stress in ALS

Both familial ALS (fALS) and sporadic ALS (sALS) are associated with increased oxidative stress, which is believed to play a critical role in the dysfunction of motor neurons. Several studies have highlighted the involvement of oxidative stress in ALS, indicating that it is a major contributor to the disease’s pathogenesis. The interplay of genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to various toxins and heavy metals, has been suggested to enhance oxidative damage in ALS. Additionally, research has focused on the potential therapeutic strategies targeting oxidative stress to improve the condition of ALS patients. Therefore, the evidence from various sources strongly supports the presence of elevated oxidative stress in ALS and its significance in the development and progression of the disease(1–4).

Environmental toxins in ALS

Multiple factors contribute to the elevation of oxidative stress, including environmental toxin overload such as heavy metals and pesticides.

The role of heavy metals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a topic of research interest. Heavy metals increase oxidative stress which in turn leads to cascades of immunomodulatory alteration of neurons in multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(5). Several studies have suggested a potential association between heavy metal exposure and ALS. For example, a prospective cohort study found that lead and cadmium may be associated with an increased risk of ALS(6). Additionally, elevated levels of metals, including cadmium, lead, and zinc, have been linked to ALS etiology(7). Furthermore, the toxic metal hypothesis proposes that toxic metals may enter the nervous system, leading to damage and increased susceptibility to ALS(5,8). These findings suggest that there may be a relationship between heavy metal overload and ALS, although further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved.

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in many herbicides, has been linked to an increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Research suggests that exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides may be intimately linked to the increased occupational risk of ALS in farmers, gardeners, and sportsmen and women(9). A study proposes that glyphosate contributes to ALS by mistakenly substituting for glycine, leading to mitochondrial stress, oxidative damage, and disruption of mineral balance, which can result in motor neuron damage seen in ALS(10). Additionally, glyphosate exposure has been associated with toxicity similar to paraquat, another herbicide linked to increased ALS risk(11). Furthermore, a cohort study found an excess of ALS cases among manufacturing workers exposed to 2,4-D, a herbicide, compared to other company employees(12). These findings suggest a potential connection between glyphosate exposure and the risk of developing ALS.

Ultra-processed foods and omega-6 rich seed oils and ALS

Recent evidence suggests that the consumption of ultra-processed foods is linked to a range of health risks, including a higher risk of dementia(13–15). Ultra-processed foods are defined as products that are high in added sugar, fat, and salt, and low in protein and fiber. They include items such as packaged baked goods, snacks, fizzy drinks, sugary cereals, and ready meals containing food additives. While there is no direct evidence linking ultra-processed foods to ALS, it is generally recommended to minimize the intake of these foods for overall health, including for individuals with ALS(16). Therefore, it is advisable for individuals, including those with ALS, to focus on consuming unprocessed or minimally processed foods and to limit the intake of ultra-processed items(13,16).

The relationship between seed oils high in omega-6 fatty acids and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a topic of interest. While there is growing evidence linking omega-6 fatty acids to neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s, the specific impact of these fatty acids on ALS is still being investigated.

One study found that a diet high in vegetable oils, particularly those high in omega-6 fatty acids, was associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease(17,18). Additionally, elevated levels of arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, have been linked to brain changes commonly found in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease(18). This suggests a potential link between omega-6 fatty acids and neurological conditions. In the context of ALS, research has shown that higher blood levels of alpha-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 fatty acid, were associated with a lower risk of ALS(19). Furthermore, elevated levels of arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, have been shown to contribute to motor neuron dysfunction and death in ALS(20). While these findings suggest a potential association between omega-6 fatty acids and neurological diseases, including ALS, further research is needed to fully understand the impact of seed oils high in omega-6 fatty acids on the development and progression of ALS. Therefore, it is important to interpret these findings in the context of ongoing research in this field.

The ketogenic diet has been studied as a potential therapeutic approach for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Research suggests that a ketogenic diet, which is high in fat and low in carbohydrates and protein, may improve the survival and function of motor neurons in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases(21). It is believed to have a neuroprotective action, improving mitochondrial function and increasing the production of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric glutamate, which may help fix the imbalance between glutamate and GABA in the brains of ALS patients(22). Studies in ALS mouse models have shown that a high-fat diet, including a ketogenic diet, led to weight gain and prolonged survival(23). While there is evidence supporting the potential role of ketogenic diets in treating ALS, more research, including placebo-controlled clinical trials, is needed to determine their effectiveness(23). In conclusion, ketogenic diets have plausible mechanisms for treating ALS, but further research is required to establish their efficacy(24)

Selected antioxidants, vitamins and ALS

Antioxidants have been a subject of interest in the context of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)(25). Several studies have highlighted the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ALS and the potential therapeutic strategies involving antioxidants. Antioxidants such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid, vitamins A and E, glutathione, melatonin, coenzyme Q, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherols have been studied for their potential benefits in ALS(1,26). Additionally, impaired antioxidant systems, such as the KEAP1-NRF2 system, have been implicated in ALS, and the activation of NRF2 as a potential therapeutic strategy has been discussed(27). However, it’s important to note that while some studies have suggested the potential benefits of antioxidants in the management of ALS, there is insufficient evidence of their efficacy based on well-designed randomized controlled trials. Therefore, while antioxidants remain an area of interest in the context of ALS, further research is needed to establish their effectiveness as a therapeutic approach(28).

High-dose vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, has been studied in the context of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)(29). Research has shown that impaired thiamine metabolism is associated with ALS, leading to decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and potential neurodegenerative changes in motor neurons(30). Additionally, vitamin B1 has been considered a potential protector for the development of ALS, as it participates in oxidative metabolism, neuroprotection, and carbohydrate metabolism(31).

High-dose vitamin B12, specifically ultrahigh-dose methylcobalamin, has been studied for its efficacy in slowing the progression of early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A randomized clinical trial conducted in Japan showed that ultrahigh-dose methylcobalamin was efficacious in slowing functional decline in early-stage ALS patients(32,33). The study used a 50-mg dose of methylcobalamin and found it to be safe and effective in slowing down functional decline in the early stages of ALS. However, it’s important to note that the effectiveness of high-dose vitamin B12 for ALS is restricted to early-stage patients, and further research is needed to determine its impact on patients in later stages of the disease. The evidence suggests that high-dose vitamin B12, particularly ultrahigh-dose methylcobalamin, may have potential benefits for patients with early-stage ALS. However, more research is needed to fully understand its impact on the disease and its potential use in later stages of ALS.

In the field of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) treatment, there is growing interest in the potential role of high-dose intravenous (IV) vitamin C. People with ALS often take vitamin C supplements for its antioxidant properties, which are thought to possibly slow disease progression. Despite this common practice, studies to date have not conclusively demonstrated a significant impact of vitamin C intake, either dietary or supplemental, on ALS risk or progression. One study, in particular, found no substantial link between high intake of vitamin C and ALS risk (26), while another study from mainland China indicated that low serum vitamin C levels might be a risk factor for ALS (27). This suggests that vitamin C supplementation could be a consideration for ALS patients.

High-dose IV vitamin C is also being researched for other conditions, including cancer, with doses ranging from 1.5 g/kg to 2.2 g/kg(34). Given its high tolerance, safety profile, relatively low cost, and accessibility, vitamins C and E are commonly used by physicians and patients, even though clinical trials have yet to provide solid backing for their efficacy in ALS(28). Therefore, while high-dose IV vitamin C is promising in other medical areas, its specific effectiveness and safety in treating ALS remain to be fully explored through further research.

High-dose vitamin D3 has been studied as a potential therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While some studies have reported positive effects of vitamin D in ALS patients, the evidence is not conclusive. A systematic review and meta-analysis found that only one randomized trial reported a slight improvement in ALSFRS (ALS Functional Rating Scale) with a higher dose of vitamin D, but no significant effect was observed in observational studies(35). Another study suggested that vitamin D may impact disease progression and muscle function in ALS, but the establishment of an optimal dose and safety of high-dose vitamin D in ALS patients requires further investigation(36). Additionally, low vitamin D levels have been linked to worse movement loss in ALS, but taking vitamin D supplements was associated with a faster decline, indicating a complex relati(37)onship between vitamin D levels and disease progression(38). While there is some evidence supporting the potential benefits of vitamin D in ALS, further research is needed to confirm its efficacy and safety in high doses for ALS patients.

The search results provide a mixed picture of the potential benefits of high-dose vitamin D3 in ALS. Some studies suggest a possible role for vitamin D in ALS, while others emphasize the need for further investigation to establish the optimal dose and safety of vitamin D supplementation in ALS patients.

Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before considering high-dose vitamin D3 as a therapy for ALS.

Other mitochondrial agents (PBMT, methylene blue) and ALS

Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), also known as low-level laser therapy (LLLT), has been studied for its potential beneficial effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Research suggests that PBMT may have beneficial effects on neural activity and may become a veritable therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS(37,39,40). One study specifically investigated the use of PBMT in a SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS, reporting potential benefits(40). While the research shows promise, it’s important to note that more extensive clinical trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of PBMT in treating ALS.

Methylene blue is being studied for its potential in treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the results of these studies are mixed. Several studies have shown that methylene blue fails to produce neuroprotective effects in mouse models of ALS, as it has no effect on motor neuron loss, toxic protein aggregation, or motor function in the tested models(41,42). On the other hand, there are also studies demonstrating the potential benefits of methylene blue in ALS treatment, suggesting that it can rescue toxic effects associated with ALS-related proteins(43). Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of methylene blue in treating ALS.

Hormones and ALS

Research suggests a complex interplay between sex hormones and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In AD, lower levels of free testosterone and higher levels of luteinizing hormone have been observed in men, potentially influencing the disease’s risk(44). Both estrogens and androgens have been shown to have neuroprotective effects, with their age-related loss increasing vulnerability to AD(45). Inflammation, a key factor in AD, is also influenced by sex steroid hormones(46). In ALS, reduced levels of free testosterone have been found, suggesting a potential role in the disease’s pathophysiology(47). However, the use of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women with ALS has not been found to be protective(48). These findings highlight the need for further research to fully understand the role of sex hormones in these neurodegenerative diseases.

In conclusion, the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) offers promising avenues through a holistic approach that targets the diverse aspects of the disease. Acknowledging the pivotal role of oxidative stress, influenced by both genetic predispositions and environmental factors such as heavy metals and glyphosate, it is crucial to actively mitigate these elements. Nutritional strategies, especially the reduction of ultra-processed foods and omega-6 rich seed oils, along with the potential neuroprotective benefits of a ketogenic diet, should be embraced. The use of antioxidants and high-dose vitamins B1, B12, C, and D3 is particularly encouraging. These supplements, with their emerging evidence of efficacy, hold great promise in the fight against ALS and warrant deeper exploration in clinical research. Additionally, innovative treatments like photobiomodulation therapy and methylene blue, which focus on enhancing mitochondrial health, are exciting prospects. The interplay of hormones in ALS also presents a potential therapeutic pathway, deserving of careful consideration and research. Ultimately, a personalized treatment plan, underpinned by ongoing advancements in research and a positive outlook on the potential of vitamins and antioxidants, is key to empowering patients and healthcare professionals in managing ALS.


  1. Hemerková P, Vališ M. Role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Antioxidant Metalloenzymes and Therapeutic Strategies. Biomolecules. 2021 Mar 16;11(3):437.
  2. Park HR, Yang EJ. Oxidative Stress as a Therapeutic Target in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Opportunities and Limitations. Diagnostics. 2021 Sep;11(9):1546.
  3. Motataianu A, Serban G, Barcutean L, Balasa R. Oxidative Stress in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Synergy of Genetic and Environmental Factors. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Aug 19;23(16):9339.
  4. Pollari E, Goldsteins G, Bart G, Koistinaho J, Giniatullin R. The role of oxidative stress in degeneration of the neuromuscular junction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014;8:131.
  5. Sheykhansari S, Kozielski K, Bill J, Sitti M, Gemmati D, Zamboni P, et al. Redox metals homeostasis in multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a review. Cell Death Dis. 2018 Mar 1;9(3):348.
  6. Peters S, Broberg K, Gallo V, Levi M, Kippler M, Vineis P, et al. Blood Metal Levels and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Risk: A Prospective Cohort. Ann Neurol. 2021 Jan;89(1):125–33.
  7. Chen P, Miah MR, Aschner M. Metals and Neurodegeneration. F1000Research. 2016 Mar 17;5:F1000 Faculty Rev-366.
  8. Pamphlett R, Bishop DP. The toxic metal hypothesis for neurological disorders. Front Neurol. 2023;14:1173779.
  9. Anderson G. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Pathoetiology and Pathophysiology: Roles of Astrocytes, Gut Microbiome, and Muscle Interactions via the Mitochondrial Melatonergic Pathway, with Disruption by Glyphosate-Based Herbicides. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Dec 29;24(1):587.
  10. Seneff S, Morley WA, Hadden MJ, Michener MC. Does Glyphosate Acting as a Glycine Analogue Contribute To ALS? Seneff [Internet]. 2016 Nov [cited 2024 Feb 4]; Available from:
  11. Beyond Pesticides. Commonly Used Neurotoxic Pesticide Exposure Increases ALS Risk to Workers and Residents [Internet]. Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog. 2021 [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Available from:
  12. Kamel F, Umbach DM, Bedlack RS, Richards M, Watson M, Alavanja MC, et al. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Jun;33(3):457–62.
  13. BMJ. New evidence links ultra-processed foods with a range of health risks | BMJ [Internet]. [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Available from:
  14. George J. Dementia Risk Climbs With Intake of Ultra-Processed Foods [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Available from:
  15. Guglielmetti M, Grosso G, Ferraris C, Bergamaschi R, Tavazzi E, La Malfa A, et al. Ultra-processed foods consumption is associated with multiple sclerosis severity. Front Neurol. 2023;14:1086720.
  16. Panoff L. Verywell Health. [cited 2024 Feb 4]. ALS Diet: Impact of Nutrition, What to Eat, and Assistance. Available from:
  17. KeepingBusy. Keeping Busy. 2023 [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Can Seed Oils Cause Dementia? Available from:
  18. Net SL. 2022 [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Dementia: The seemingly healthy food item that may fuel brain decline. Available from:
  19. PhD PI. #AAN2018 – ALS Risk Lower with Diet Rich in Essential Omega-3 Fatty Acid [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Available from:
  20. Agrawal I, Lim YS, Ng SY, Ling SC. Deciphering lipid dysregulation in ALS: from mechanisms to translational medicine. Transl Neurodegener. 2022 Nov 7;11(1):48.
  21. Caplliure‐Llopis J, Peralta‐Chamba T, Carrera‐Juliá S, Cuerda‐Ballester M, Drehmer‐Rieger E, López‐Rodriguez MM, et al. Therapeutic alternative of the ketogenic Mediterranean diet to improve mitochondrial activity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): A Comprehensive Review. Food Sci Nutr. 2019 Dec 16;8(1):23–35.
  22. D’Souza AD. Ketogenic Diet | ALS News Today [Internet]. [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Available from:
  23. Paganoni S, Wills AM. High-Fat and Ketogenic Diets in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. J Child Neurol. 2013 Aug;28(8):989–92.
  24. Bedlack R, Barkhaus P, Carter G, Crayle J, Mcdermott C, Pattee G, et al. ALSUntangled #62: vitamin C. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Front Degener. 2021 Jun 30;1–4.
  25. Obrador E, Salvador R, López-Blanch R, Jihad-Jebbar A, Vallés SL, Estrela JM. Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation and Mitochondria in the Pathophysiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Antioxid Basel Switz. 2020 Sep 22;9(9):901.
  26. Carrera-Juliá S, Moreno ML, Barrios C, de la Rubia Ortí JE, Drehmer E. Antioxidant Alternatives in the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Comprehensive Review. Front Physiol. 2020 Feb 6;11:63.
  27. Bono S, Feligioni M, Corbo M. Impaired antioxidant KEAP1-NRF2 system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: NRF2 activation as a potential therapeutic strategy. Mol Neurodegener. 2021 Oct 18;16(1):71.
  28. Orell R, Lane R, Ross M. Antioxidants for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Internet]. [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Available from:
  29. Liu D, Ke Z, Luo J. Thiamine Deficiency and Neurodegeneration: The Interplay among Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy. Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Sep;54(7):5440–8.
  30. Mann RH. Impaired Thiamine Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Its Potential Treatment With Benfotiamine: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature. Cureus. 15(6):e40511.
  31. Goncharova PS, Davydova TK, Popova TE, Novitsky MA, Petrova MM, Gavrilyuk OA, et al. Nutrient Effects on Motor Neurons and the Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Nutrients. 2021 Oct 26;13(11):3804.
  32. Oki R, Izumi Y, Fujita K, Miyamoto R, Nodera H, Sato Y, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Ultrahigh-Dose Methylcobalamin in Early-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol. 2022 Jun 1;79(6):575–83.
  33. DPT MAL PT. Neurology Advisor. 2022 [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Ultra-High Dose Vitamin B12 Slows Progression of ALS. Available from:
  34. Böttger F, Vallés-Martí A, Cahn L, Jimenez CR. High-dose intravenous vitamin C, a promising multi-targeting agent in the treatment of cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2021 Oct 30;40(1):343.
  35. Lanznaster D, Bejan-Angoulvant T, Gandía J, Blasco H, Corcia P. Is There a Role for Vitamin D in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Neurol. 2020 Jul 31;11:697.
  36. Gianforcaro A, Hamadeh MJ. Vitamin D as a potential therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014 Feb;20(2):101–11.
  37. Abijo A, Lee CY, Huang CY, Ho PC, Tsai KJ. The Beneficial Role of Photobiomodulation in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Biomedicines. 2023 Jun 26;11(7):1828.
  38. Kegel M. Low Vitamin D Levels in ALS Linked to Worse Movement Loss, Not Outcomes [Internet]. [cited 2024 Feb 4]. Available from:
  39. Longo L, Postiglione M, Gabellini M, Longo D. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) treated with Low Level LASER Therapy (LLLT): a case report. In Florence (Italy); 2009 [cited 2024 Feb 4]. p. 96–8. Available from:
  40. Miller LA, Torraca DG, De Taboada L. Retrospective Observational Study and Analysis of Two Different Photobiomodulation Therapy Protocols Combined with Rehabilitation Therapy as Therapeutic Interventions for Canine Degenerative Myelopathy. Photobiomodulation Photomed Laser Surg. 2020 Apr;38(4):195–205.
  41. Audet JN, Soucy G, Julien JP. Methylene blue administration fails to confer neuroprotection in two amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse models. Neuroscience. 2012 May 3;209:136–43.
  42. Dibaj P, Zschüntzsch J, Steffens H, Scheffel J, Göricke B, Weishaupt JH, et al. Influence of methylene blue on microglia-induced inflammation and motor neuron degeneration in the SOD1(G93A) model for ALS. PloS One. 2012;7(8):e43963.
  43. Yang L, Youngblood H, Wu C, Zhang Q. Mitochondria as a target for neuroprotection: role of methylene blue and photobiomodulation. Transl Neurodegener. 2020 Jun 1;9(1):19.
  44. Butchart J, Birch B, Bassily R, Wolfe L, Holmes C. Male sex hormones and systemic inflammation in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2013;27(2):153–6.
  45. Vest RS, Pike CJ. Gender, sex steroid hormones, and Alzheimer’s disease. Horm Behav. 2013 Feb;63(2):301–7.
  46. Uchoa MF, Moser VA, Pike CJ. Interactions between inflammation, sex steroids, and Alzheimer’s disease risk factors. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2016 Oct;43:60–82.
  47. Militello A, Vitello G, Lunetta C, Toscano A, Maiorana G, Piccoli T, et al. The serum level of free testosterone is reduced in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2002 Mar 15;195(1):67–70.
  48. Vasconcelos K de, Oliveira ASB, Fuchs LFP, Simões RS, Simoes M de J, Girão MJBC, et al. Action of hormonal therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review. Rev Assoc Medica Bras 1992. 2020 Nov;66(11):1589–94.


This entry was posted in Misc. Bookmark the permalink.

Comments are closed.