What can we, the consumers, learn from the tragic failure of resveratrol hype?

What can we, the consumers learn from the tragic failure of resveratrol hype?

The heat of Resveratrol for antiaging started earlier this century after some research shows increasing an enzyme called SIRT2 doubles lifespan in yeast1,2, making people to anticipate lifespan extension of humans. SIRT2 gene is also suggested as the reason why people benefitted from calorie restrictions (fasting)3,4.  David Sinclair’s lab published a paper in 2003 that resveratrol extends lifespan of S. cerevisiae5.  But S. cerevisiae is a single cell organism, quite different from animals such as mice or humans. In 2006, Sinclair’s lab again showed resveratrol improves health and survival of obese mice to make them live almost as long as normal mice3.  David Sinclair co-founded a company called Sirtris Pharmaceuticals based on these findings. GSK later bought Sirtris for $720 million.  But then other researchers began to wonder why they couldn’t repeat Sinclair’s resveratrol results and the suspicion that the original data was flawed began to surface6. Activating sirtuins can extend lifespan of worms and flies, however their effects on aging are vulnerable to confounding genetical factors7. When these confounding factors are properly controlled, resveratrol’s effects on aging disappeared7. Besides, the benefits of calorie restriction have nothing to do with Sirt2 gene7. This is quite a blow to the scientific foundation of the claim that resveratrol could extend lifespan.  There is even some research to show that blocking Sir2 genes may extend lifespan8. It turns out that it’s not resveratrol that activated SIRT1 gene, it’s an artificial dye that was responsible for the Sirt1 gene activation, and resveratrol itself does not activate SIRT1 gene, reported by separate laboratories9,10. So by now, it’s clear that the observation of resveratrol activation of Sirt1 is a lab error. GSK’s $720M dollars investment was based on flawed lab data. A more recent study further shows that resveratrol’s effects are not by activation of SIRT gene but by “induction of low-level replicative stress”11. So resveratrol only “activates” SIRT gene under certain specific conditions in laboratory but not in vivo (inside human body). But GSK is not giving up without a fight. GSK is dumping more money on clinical trials of resveratrol12. But GSK is fighting an uphill battle: 1. Resveratrol is poorly absorbed; 2. The small amount that is absorbed is quickly destroyed at the liver (don’t forget resveratrol is a plant based chemical and there is “foreign” to our body. Our body naturally tends to defend against these “foreign” chemicals by destroying them in the liver. Plant chemicals that are not naturally existing in human are mostly toxins. At low doses, these plant toxins may induce some health benefits by causing “stress” related biological responses from our body. This process is called hormesis.); 3. Resveratrol activates Sirt gene only under very specific conditions that are not found usually in human bodies. GSK (Sirtris) developed a resveratrol derivative called SRT 501 which has a better absorption. There is an ongoing clinical trial of SRT50112. SRT501 was used as a treatment for patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma. The clinical trial was terminated early due to severe side effects including nephrotoxicity13. Over 150 trials using resveratrol has been done with no clear clinical benefits14. Take this randomized, double blind and placebo controlled trial15. Resveratrol of up to 1000 mg for 16 weeks, but no effect on inflammation control was observed. Even worse, those received resveratrol showed an elevation of cholesterol levels. Resveratrol also blunts the positive effects of exercise training16,17.

The National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program (ITP) is a government agency responsible for testing of hopeful drugs. Resveratrol didn’t pass the criteria of the National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program (ITP). However, ITP was directly told to test resveratrol. ITP ran the resveratrol test 6 times, but all tests still showed negative results of resveratrol18. Over $2B was spent on resveratrol studies over the past 20 years without clear evidence that resveratrol is helpful to health. Facing the mounting evidence against his original hype that resveratrol is a “fountain of youth” from which he benefitted tremendously, he continues to defend his positions to the extend he began to tell lies19.

Important lessons that we, the consumers, should learn from this resveratrol saga/scandal are:

  1. Lab research results don’t equal to clinical results on humans. Scientific experiments are done under specific conditions, often different from those of humans.
  2. Health/medicine is such a vast field that most consumers don’t have the necessary training in the field to really understand these, often falling prey to these hypes.
  3. What can you do, as a consumer, to protect yourself from falling into prey? My advice is to find a medical doctor (not a basic scientist) who has education, training and experience in both basic science and clinical medicine, who puts patients’ health ahead of financial interests.



  1. Kaeberlein, M., McVey, M. & Guarente, L. The SIR2/3/4 complex and SIR2 alone promote longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by two different mechanisms. Genes Dev 13, 2570–2580 (1999).
  2. Swaminathan, N. The Fountain of Youth at the Bottom of a Wine Bottle? Scientific American https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-fountain-of-youth-at/.
  3. Baur, J. A. et al. Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature 444, 337–342 (2006).
  4. Lee, S.-H., Lee, J.-H., Lee, H.-Y. & Min, K.-J. Sirtuin signaling in cellular senescence and aging. BMB Rep 52, 24–34 (2019).
  5. Howitz, K. T. et al. Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan. Nature 425, 191–196 (2003).
  6. Pezzuto, J. M. Resveratrol: Twenty Years of Growth, Development and Controversy. Biomol Ther (Seoul) 27, 1–14 (2019).
  7. Burnett, C. et al. Absence of effects of Sir2 overexpression on lifespan in C. elegans and Drosophila. Nature 477, 482–485 (2011).
  8. Fabrizio, P. et al. Sir2 blocks extreme life-span extension. Cell 123, 655–667 (2005).
  9. Beher, D. et al. Resveratrol is Not a Direct Activator of SIRT1 Enzyme Activity. Chemical Biology & Drug Design 74, 619–624 (2009).
  10. Pacholec, M. et al. SRT1720, SRT2183, SRT1460, and resveratrol are not direct activators of SIRT1. J Biol Chem 285, 8340–8351 (2010).
  11. Benslimane, Y. et al. Genome-Wide Screens Reveal that Resveratrol Induces Replicative Stress in Human Cells. Mol Cell 79, 846-856.e8 (2020).
  12. Sirtris, a GSK Company. A Phase II, Open-Label, Clinical Study to Assess the Safety and Activity of SRT501 Alone or in Combination With Bortezomib in Patients With Multiple Myeloma. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00920556 (2018).
  13. Popat, R. et al. A phase 2 study of SRT501 (resveratrol) with bortezomib for patients with relapsed and or refractory multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol 160, 714–717 (2013).
  14. Curry, A. M., White, D. S., Donu, D. & Cen, Y. Human Sirtuin Regulators: The ‘Success’ Stories. Front Physiol 12, 752117 (2021).
  15. Kjær, T. N. et al. No Beneficial Effects of Resveratrol on the Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 102, 1642–1651 (2017).
  16. Gliemann, L. et al. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men. J Physiol 591, 5047–5059 (2013).
  17. Olesen, J. et al. Exercise training, but not resveratrol, improves metabolic and inflammatory status in skeletal muscle of aged men. J Physiol 592, 1873–1886 (2014).
  18. Strong, R. et al. Evaluation of resveratrol, green tea extract, curcumin, oxaloacetic acid, and medium-chain triglyceride oil on life span of genetically heterogeneous mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 68, 6–16 (2013).
  19. Brad Stanfield, MD. Resveratrol – The Unfortunate (& Scandalous) Story.
  20. Amjad, S. et al. Role of NAD+ in regulating cellular and metabolic signaling pathways. Molecular Metabolism 49, (2021).


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Good news to older adults: regular exercise with good nutrition slows down aging

Good news to older adults: It’s not too late to start exercise with a good nutrition program, you may be as young as young people in their 20s (with respect to muscle NAD+, energy metabolism).

Top science journal “Nature” recently (February 17, 2022) reported:

“Furthermore, we found that in the older adults, NAD+ muscle abundance positively correlated with muscle and mitochondrial health parameters. Taken together, these results show that NAD+ is lower in aging human muscle and that NAD+ abundance is directly associated with the healthy aging state of the individual.”

These researchers found that NAD+ is one of the most depleted metabolites with age, as it declines significantly with age. Among older adults who maintained exercise and good nutrition, their (60-85 years of age) NAD+ levels remained normal, even comparable to those of younger adults (in their 20s). This is very encouraging and interesting in the field of anti-aging medicine. This is yet another piece of evidence supporting the importance of mitochondrial energy metabolism in aging. Staying active with good nutrition, especially nutrients that support mitochondria and energy metabolism, is essential for anti-aging.

They also found that these metabolic changes that occur with aging can be reversed by exercise a nd nutrition. This is great for seniors: it’s not too late to start exercising and improve nutrition! Another important takeaway from this study is that glutathione is in high demand within cells as we age. Therefore, supplementing with glutathione or the nutrients used to produce glutathione is crucial. Unfortunately, ordinary glutathione is poorly absorbed orally, with the exception of liposomal glutathione, which is highly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Glutathione precursors such as NAC are commonly used to increase intracellular glutathione levels.


Janssens, GE, Grevendonk, L., Perez, RZ et al. Healthy aging and muscle function are positively associated with NAD+ abundance in humans. Nat Aging (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43587-022-00174 -3

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TotoCell Nutrition

TotoCell Nutrition

About nutritional supplements, the following issues are what I have learned from orthomolecular medicine and anti-aging/functional medicine.

1. RDA vs. ODA. RDA: RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) is set by FDA and tends to be on the low end for most people. ODA (Optimal Daily Allowance) is based on nutritional studies and is what should be recommended. Most nutritional supplements on the market follow RDA, not ODA.

2. Variety: A good nutrition program should be broad based to include most of the essential nutrients. Research shows that deficiency in vitamins (A, Bs, C, D, K2 etc) and minerals (such as magnesium, selenium) have reached a pandemic level.

3. Antioxidants: Increased oxidative stress (due to excess of toxins and insufficient anti-oxidants intake) is the common biochemical mechanism of most chronic diseases and aging. Supplementation of a wide variety of anti-oxidants, therefore, is essential for optimal health.

4. Mitochondrial nutrition: Mitochondrial dysfunction is another significantly under recognized issue. Most, if not all, chronic diseases and aging have mitochondrial dysfunction. Maintain and/or repairing mitochondrial function is of paramount importance in health maintenance and disease management. Mitochondrial nutrition is part of this program. We included most major mitochondrial nutrients in our TotoCell Nutrition.

5. Most adults have excess calcium and iron. Calcium and iron supplementation without testing is harmful to our health. Yet, I have not seen a multi-vitamin product that doesn’t‘ contain calcium (or iron).

Many years ago, when I started anti-aging/functional medicine,  I was buying various supplements on the market for myself. Eventually, I found myself taking 20-30 capsules/tablets daily.  Yes, they do make me feel better and more energetic. I also gave them to my parents and they told me they felt better too.  The only problem is that there are too many capsules and tablets.  That the same problem I had.  As a result, I had no choice but to formulate our own TotoCell Nutrition which contains all the vitamins,  antioxidants, and nutrients for mitochondria and for bone and heart health and that doesn’t contain any unnecessary preservatives or additives, conveniently packaged for home or travel use). Many of our patients have been taking it with great results. Our products are not for retail sale. It‘s only for our patients and clients under our supervision.

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Low Carb Medicine

Low Carb Medicine is a new school of medicine that combines low carbohydrate/ketogenic diet, with lifestyle, nutrition, detox, bioidentical hormonal balance, cell regeneration (stem cell therapy etc) to prevent and manage diseases and to maintain health and extend lifespan. Low carb medicine follows the 3 fundamental principles of “Integrative, Natural and Harmonious” approach to health and disease management.

  1. Life Style (sleep, diet, exercise,  relaxation);
  2. Nutrition, especially vitamins, antioxidants, and mitochondrial nutrients;
  3. Detox (intrinsic and extrinsic toxins detoxification and removal);
  4. Gut health, especially leaky gut, dysbiosis;
  5. Hormonal balance, including thyroid, adrenal, sex hormones and growth hormones;
  6. Regenerative medicine, cell therapies including stem cell technology.
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Hydrogen Peroxide and Prevention of Covid-19

The following report is an interesting observation that those medical staff and patients who used hydrogen peroxide (HP) oral wash and nasal rinse seem to be protected from Covid-19.  HP is a safe, inexpensive, and effective against a variety of pathogens including viruses, when used appropriately.

In a letter recently published in the Journal of Hospital Infections, Dr. Seth Ayettey from the University of Ghana Medical School and Dr. Felix Konotey-Ahulu from the Phoenix Hospital Group in London UK et al reported their clinical study of hydrogen peroxide as oral wash and nasal rinse in the prevention of Covid-19 in a total of 1009 people (of both patients and the medical staff) from 2 sites in Ghana.  It is a striking observation that none of the medical staff who had close contact with Covid-19 patients and who took hydrogen peroxide (HP) oral wash and nasal rinse developed Covid-19. They reported that:

At one healthcare facility (SODH) in Ghana,

  • Between May and December 2020, out of a total of 466 staff, 8 were using HP for prevention and none of the 8 (0/8) contracted COVID-19; while 62 out of the 358 (62/358) who didn’t take HP prevention developed Covid-19.
  • Between January and March 2021, 94 of the 466 staff used HP and none had COVID-19 (0/94). Out of the remaining 372 staff who did not use HP, 10 (10/372) developed COVID-19.

At the 2nd healthcare facility (MO Hospital) in Ghana,

  • Between July 2020 and March 2021, 17 of a total of 84 staff developed COVID-19. None used HP.
  • 52 of the 84 healthcare workers used HP between August 2020 and March 2021. None had COVID-19

    30 of the 84 did not use HP. None had COVID-19.

  • Between July 2020 and March 2021, 5 out of 370 in-patients had COVID-19. None used HP.
  • HP prophylaxis for in-patients started mid August 2020. By March 2021, they had admitted a total of 3387 patients. All patients used HP. None had COVID-19.

Dr. Thomas Levy  summarizes the vast amount of research on HP in his new book (Rapid Virus Recovery).


Amoah et al. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2021. PMID: 34487774

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DAVINCI Global Conference on Nutrition to Boost Immunity Against Covid-19

Please forward this email to your friends and colleagues.  The more people with optimal health and immunity, the sooner we can end this Pandemic.

Also, you will receive a portion of the ticket sales when your friend or colleague registers for the Conference, as a small token of our appreciation to you.

The best way to protect yourself and your loved ones from Covid-19 (or other viral diseases and chronic diseases) is to boost your own health and your own immunity!

——Proudly Present——

DAVINCI Global Conference Nutrition to Boost Immunity Against Covid-19


Michael Holick, M.D., Ph.D.

Professor of Immunology, Boston University, USA

Organizing Committee:

Jorg Spitz, M.D., Ph.D.

Chairman, Institute of Medical Information and Prevention, Germany

Richard Z. Cheng, M.D., Ph.D.

President, Cheng Integrative Health Center, USA

We are honored to have dozens of world’s top experts in immune health and nutrition to talk about the research and practical application on how to Safely, Inexpensively and Effectively boost your own health in this global fight against the Pandemic.  We’ll not only talk about how to prevent and treat Covid-19, but also on the prevention and treatment of Long Covid and the potential side effects of Covid vaccines, should you decide to take them.

Click to view the whole panel of key note speakers and to Register:


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Our office will be closed all day tomorrow 10/19/2021 and will open again on 10/20/2021.

Our office will be closed all day tomorrow 10/19/2021 and will open again on 10/20/2021.

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What I do to stay healthy during Covid-19?

It’s been nearly 2 years since the Pandemic broke out and there is no end in sight as of yet, sadly. Winter is just around the corner and it’s the high season for viral infections.

I have been receiving lots of questions on how to stay healthy, how to prevent viral infections, how to prevent Covid-19 vaccine side effects if forced to take vaccines? I understand that some people out there don’t feel comfortable with the vaccines.  I believe vaccine side effects are also related to oxidative stress.

What do I do to stay healthy and prevent viral infections? If I do catch a cold, what do I do to treat myself? The following is my general recommendations. You don’t have to do all of them, but try to do as many as you possibly can, for at least a short period of time (a couple weeks) until viral infections are gone. In the case of vaccine side effects, I’d recommend to start the following a couple of days prior and then a couple of weeks after the injections.

  • Healthy lifestyle: sleep, exercise.
  • Diet: Low-carbon diet, avoid processed foods, avoid high Ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-6 PUFA) of various oils (especially seed oils).
  • Nutritional supplements:
    • Vitamin C, 5,000-10,000 mg/day.
    • Or liposomal vitamin C, 1000-2000 mg/day.
    • Vitamin Bs,
    • Vitamin D3, ensure blood concentration at least 30 ng/ml above, preferably at 50 – 100 ng/ml). I take Vit D3 5,000IU/day. You may take Vit D3 50,000 IU once a week.
    • Vitamin E, 200 IU/day.
    • Zinc: 50mg/day.
    • Liposomal glutathione, 1,000mg/day.
    • Or NAC (n-acetylcysteine): 1,000-1,500 mg/day.
    • Magnesium: 500-1,000 mg/day.
    • CoQ10: 200mg/day.
    • Quercetin, 1,500 mg/day
    • 3% hydrogen peroxide nebulization.
    • Other antioxidants such as melatonin.
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Integrative Antioxidant Therapy in the Treatment of a Severe Covid-19 Patient


  1. We describe a case of severe Covid-19 (a man of advanced age and multiple comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity and active chronic hepatitis B) who improved quickly upon receiving the “Integrative antioxidant” intervention” approach and was discharged from hospital 4 days after the implementation of the approach.
  2. Severe/critical cases of Covid-19 cases are characterized biochemically and pathologically by cytokine storm with rapidly rising oxidative stress, leading to severe oxidative damage of biologically important macromolecules, cells, and eventually multiple organ failure and death.
  3. Early, sufficient doses and integrative antioxidants administration, to block or reduce oxidative stress, cytokine storm, may be able to prevent or reduce the oxidative damages of biologically important macromolecules (especially poly-unsaturated fatty acids in bio-membranes, PUFA, lipid peroxide chain reaction) and multi-organ failure, death.
  4. The optimal efficiency of our body’s antioxidant systems requires all components to be present and in sufficient amounts. Inadequate or absent of one component antioxidant may render the entire antioxidant system less efficient or dysfunctional entirely.
  5. Due to the high safety and low-cost profile of antioxidant vitamins, nutrients, and the potential clinical utility of this approach, as demonstrated in the case presented here, further clinical research is clearly warranted as this may help many other patients, not only in severe Covid-19, but also other cytokine storm/oxidative stress cases caused by viral or other agents.

Case description: I recently consulted on a Manila (Philippines) Covid-19 patient: Robert, male, 60 years old, he is 176 cm in height (5’9), 90 kg, with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and with a history of chronic hepatitis B. He developed cough, low fever, and pneumonia on chest X ray. He was admitted to the hospital on 9/1/21 and was given standard therapy. But his clinical conditions didn’t improve and instead worsened. His oxygen saturation went down to as low as 90% and inflammatory/cytokine storm markers were also rising significantly (ferritin rose from 997 on 9/1 to 2202 on 9/6; D Dimer rose from 0.27 on 9/1 to 0.99 on 9/6. His CRP was also very high at 33.97).

The family requested high dose Vit C (HDIVC), but the attending physician was hesitant due to very high levels of ferritin and also the hospital has a policy on Vit C use of up to 3,000 mg per day.

During a video consultation upon request, I pointed out that the poor health status with the comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity and active hepatitis B) and the rapidly rising levels of cytokine storm markers, make Robert at very high risk of imminent multi-organ failure and high mortality. The rapidly rising levels of cytokine storm markers suggest that Robert is on the brink of developing cytokine storm, if he is not already in one1–5. The family and the attending are concerned about the high ferritin and the possible side effects of HDIVC. I pointed out Robert’s high ferritin levels are more of an “acute inflammatory” response in nature and a marker for cytokine storm, rather than an indicator of true high iron storage. The priority is to quickly block/control the cytokine storm, to reduce oxidative pressure, to prevent/minimize oxidative damages to the cells, tissues and organs, to prevent multi-organ failure.

I recommend immediate large doses of integrative antioxidant intervention:

  1. Vit C vein 30 g/24 hours;
  2. Vit E, 400iu/day 3;
  3. Vit D3 (his D3 is only 28), 50,000iu, one-time, immediately.
  4. Magnesium 1000mg/day;
  5. Zinc 100mg/day x 7-10 days, then reducing to 30-50 mg/day;
  6. Glutathione (glutathione), 1-2 g/day, intravenous or Lipo, oral
  7. 3% hydrogen peroxide atomized inhalation, 15-30 minutes, 3-4 times/day (this however, wasn’t implemented due to hospital restriction);
  8. Other (e.g. CoQ10, alpha lipoic acid, melatonin).

However, due to the policy restriction and other factors, my suggestions weren’t implemented immediately.  A few days later, the patient’s condition deteriorated further. Upon the 2nd video consult, I was really worried of an imminent multi-organ failure and was literally begging the attending physician to implement my suggestions. I pointed out loudly the high safety profile of the agents that I recommended with literature references. We, the attending physician, the caring staff, the family and myself worked as a team to figure out a way to implement my suggestions.  The hospital limits the maximum amount of intravenous VCs to 3 g/24 hours, so I recommend to give HDIVC at 3 grams/24 hours, and then add liposomal VC (luckily, they were able to find Lipo-VC of LivOn Labs in Manila), 6 grams by mouth as a loading dose and followed by 2-3 grams every 6 hours by mouth. Hydrogen peroxide nebulization, however, was prohibited by the hospital and wasn’t implemented. The rest of my suggestions including Lipo-Glutathione, zinc, high dose Vit D3 were all administered as recommended.

The next day, the patient was beginning to improve, Mike (one of the patient’s brothers) told me. On the third day (September 13th), his clinical conditions as well as his chest R ray showed significant improvement and the oxygen mask was removed. Discharge was planned. On the fourth day after the antioxidants administration (September 14th), the patient was discharged from the hospital to home.







Robert’s Chest X ray on 9/13/21 improved significantly compared with CXR on 9/10/21.

I recommended the continued the integrative antioxidants administration for a few more weeks until clinical and laboratory markers all return to normal and then be placed on a maintenance plan for his chronic disease management. The family scheduled another consultation with me is later for the management of Robert’s ongoing recovery as well as the management of his underlying chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension and obesity).

On 14 September, the patient was discharged from the hospital and returned home for treatment.

Brief discussion:

Soon after the outbreak of Covid-19, in my paper (3/1/20)4 and in my NIH presentation (4/8/20) 5,6, I (as well as others) pointed out that Cytokine storm/oxidative stress is a key pathological and biochemical feature of severe/critical Covid-19 and other acute respiratory distress syndrome and early and high dose Vit C intravenously should be implemented4. Cytokine storm/oxidative stress is also a common feature of severe cases of influenza7, viral hepatitis8–10, viral encephalitis11, AIDS/HIV12, Ebola13, etc. Oxidative damage of important bio-molecules caused by cytokines storm/oxidative stress is largely responsible for various clinical symptoms of Covid-19.


Cytokine storm/oxidative stress results in the rapid and significant oxidative damages of bio-important molecules, especially unsaturated fatty acids on cell membranes, in a process called lipid peroxidation chain reaction14–16. This lipid peroxide chain reaction oxidizes PUFA molecules on lipid membranes much more readily and rapidly. The dietary intake of omega-6 PUFA has increased several fold during the last several decades17,18, setting the stage for explosive lipid peroxidation among those with a high PUFA diet. This may be partially the reason of the high morbidity and mortality seen in patients with basic chronic diseases such as diabetes and other metabolic diseases since these patients tend to have a high omega-6 PUFA intake19,20.

There are several different types of oxidants (free radicals) and there are different antioxidant systems that neutralize or scavenge these oxidants21,22. These antioxidants systems require each and every member of a system to be present to be effective.  For example, vitamin E is required for the termination of lipid peroxidation chain reaction. In the absence of vitamin E, vitamin C’s is ineffective in termination of lipid peroxidation23.



In conclusion, early and sufficient doses of some basic antioxidants  (such as vitamins E, C, CoQ10, glutathione, magnesium, selenium, NAD and NAD precursors) should be systematically implemented in order to prevent or to terminate cytokine storm which may lead to multi-organ failure and ultimately death. In addition to these antioxidants, other agents with natural antiviral or immune boosting effects should also be implemented including, but not limited to vitamin D3, zinc, and hydrogen peroxide nebulization24.

I introduced this concept in my presentation at the 50th Annual Conference of ISOM10.

p.s. This is one of the questions I received from the family:

“Why did Robert’s lungs suddenly improve within 2 days? (On 9/11, the pulmonologist said that Robert needed to be on oxygen for 1 month after discharge.  Then on 9/13, after a new X-ray and ABG test, the pulmonologist said he did not need to be on oxygen anymore after discharge. ”


  1. Melo, A. K. G. et al. Biomarkers of cytokine storm as red flags for severe and fatal COVID-19 cases: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 16, e0253894 (2021).
  2. Huang, I., Pranata, R., Lim, M. A., Oehadian, A. & Alisjahbana, B. C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and ferritin in severe coronavirus disease-2019: a meta-analysis. Ther Adv Respir Dis 14, 1753466620937175 (2020).
  3. Hu, B., Huang, S. & Yin, L. The cytokine storm and COVID-19. J Med Virol 93, 250–256 (2021).
  4. Cheng, Richard Z. Can early and high intravenous dose of vitamin C prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? Medicine in Drug Discovery 5, 100028 (2020).
  5. Cheng, Richard. NIH Guest Speech: HDIVC on Covid-19. http://www.drwlc.com/Covid-19_talks.shtml.
  6. Cheng, R. Vitamin C in the Prevention and Treatment of Covid-19. (2020).
  7. Oldstone, M. B. A. & Rosen, H. Cytokine storm plays a direct role in the morbidity and mortality from influenza virus infection and is chemically treatable with a single sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist molecule. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 378, 129–147 (2014).
  8. Mbachu, J., Bul, V. & Koppe, S. W. P. The Perfect (Cytokine) Storm: Autoimmune Hepatitis as a Catalyst for Macrophage Activation Syndrome: 1950. Official journal of the American College of Gastroenterology | ACG 111, S930 (2016).
  9. Xie, J. et al. Cytokine storms are primarily responsible for the rapid death of ducklings infected with duck hepatitis A virus type 1. Sci Rep 8, 6596 (2018).
  10. Richard Cheng MD PhD. Oxidative Stress, Ignored Key Pathology of Covid-19. (2021).
  11. Savarin, C. & Bergmann, C. C. Fine Tuning the Cytokine Storm by IFN and IL-10 Following Neurotropic Coronavirus Encephalomyelitis. Front Immunol 9, 3022 (2018).
  12. Muema, D. M. et al. Association between the cytokine storm, immune cell dynamics, and viral replicative capacity in hyperacute HIV infection. BMC Med 18, 81 (2020).
  13. Younan, P. et al. Ebola Virus Binding to Tim-1 on T Lymphocytes Induces a Cytokine Storm. mBio 8, e00845-17 (2017).
  14. Ayala, A., Muñoz, M. F. & Argüelles, S. Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014, 360438 (2014).
  15. Mylonas, C. & Kouretas, D. Lipid peroxidation and tissue damage. In Vivo 13, 295–309 (1999).
  16. Ebrahimi, M., Norouzi, P., Aazami, H. & Moosavi-Movahedi, A. A. Review on oxidative stress relation on COVID-19: Biomolecular and bioanalytical approach. Int J Biol Macromol 189, 802–818 (2021).
  17. Shaikh, S. R. & Edidin, M. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and membrane organization: The balance between immunotherapy and susceptibility to infection. Chem Phys Lipids 153, 24–33 (2008).
  18. Guyenet, S. J. & Carlson, S. E. Increase in adipose tissue linoleic acid of US adults in the last half century. Adv Nutr 6, 660–664 (2015).
  19. Muhlhausler, B. S. & Ailhaud, G. P. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the early origins of obesity. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity 20, 56–61 (2013).
  20. Knobbe, C. Diseases of Civilization: Are Seed Oil Excesses the Unifying Mechanism?’. (2020).
  21. Phaniendra, A., Jestadi, D. B. & Periyasamy, L. Free Radicals: Properties, Sources, Targets, and Their Implication in Various Diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem 30, 11–26 (2015).
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The office will be closed on Monday, 07/04/2021, in observance of the July 4th holiday. Thank you and have a happy & safe long weekend.

The office will be closed on Monday, 07/04/2021, in observance of the July 4th holiday.
Thank you and have a happy & safe long weekend.
Posted in News | Comments Off on The office will be closed on Monday, 07/04/2021, in observance of the July 4th holiday. Thank you and have a happy & safe long weekend.