How to Practice Intermittent Fasting

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is an eating pattern that regulates the body’s metabolic function and promotes health by eating and fasting at set times. Here are several common intermittent fasting methods and how to practice them.

1. 16/8 Fasting
This is one of the most common and easy-to-follow fasting methods. The 16/8 fasting method means a 16-hour fasting period and an 8-hour eating period every day.

– Determine an 8-hour eating window that works for you, such as 12 noon to 8 pm.
– Eat two to three nutritious meals within the eating window.
– During the fasting period, only water, black coffee or unsweetened tea can be consumed.

2. 5:2 Fasting
This method involves eating normally five days a week and restricting calorie intake (usually 500-600 calories) on two days.

– Choose two days (non-consecutive) to go on a low-calorie diet, consuming 500-600 calories on each of these two days.
– You can eat normally for the remaining five days, but you should also pay attention to a balanced diet and not overeating.

3. Alternate-Day Fasting
Alternate-day fasting means fasting or a very low-calorie diet every other day.

– On the “fasting day”, only consume about 500 calories.
– On the “non-fasting day”, you can eat normally, but you also need to balance it.

4. Warrior Fasting
The Warrior Fasting method only has one four-hour eating window per day, usually in the evening.

– Maintain a light diet throughout the day, such as fruits or raw vegetables.
– Eat a rich dinner within the four-hour window in the evening.

5. Eat-Stop-Eat Method
This method is to fast for 24 hours once or twice a week.

– Choose a day (or two days) and fast for 24 hours from the end of the previous day’s dinner to the dinner time of the next day.
– During this time, only water, tea or black coffee can be consumed.

Practice suggestions
1. Gradually adapt: You can gradually extend the fasting time at the beginning to avoid sudden long-term fasting.
2. Stay hydrated: During the fasting period, drink plenty of water to keep your body hydrated.
3. Balanced nutrition: Make sure to consume enough protein, healthy fats, fiber and vitamins within the eating window.
4. Avoid overeating: Try to avoid consuming too much high-calorie, unhealthy food within the eating window.
5. Listen to your body’s signals: Pay attention to your body’s reactions. If you feel uncomfortable, you can adjust your fasting method or stop.

Consult a doctor: Before starting any fasting plan, it is best to consult a doctor or nutritionist to ensure that this diet is suitable for your health.

Through scientific and reasonable practice of intermittent fasting, it can not only help control weight, but also improve metabolic health, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and improve overall health.

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Why I stopped eating raw spinach!

Raw spinach is high in oxalate which can contribute to the formation of kidney stones, particularly calcium oxalate stones.[1][3][4]

– Spinach contains higher concentrations of oxalate than most crops, and consuming a normal portion (50-100g) of raw spinach can result in a significant increase in urinary oxalate excretion.[1][3] This heightened oxalate load increases the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation.

– Food frequency questionnaire studies have identified raw and cooked spinach as a major dietary source of oxalate in kidney stone-forming populations, despite its infrequent consumption.[3] This suggests that even sporadic intake of high-oxalate foods like spinach can contribute to stone risk.

– To reduce kidney stone risk, experts recommend limiting intake of high-oxalate foods like spinach, rhubarb, nuts, and certain berries for those prone to calcium oxalate stones.[4][5]

– Consuming calcium-rich foods like dairy products along with oxalate-rich meals can help bind oxalate in the gut and reduce its absorption.[3][4]

In summary, the high oxalate content of raw spinach is clearly associated with an increased risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, especially with frequent or excessive consumption.[1][3][4][5] Moderation of raw spinach intake is advisable for individuals susceptible to this type of kidney stone.


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How to Treat Chronic Cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder)

For chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), a low-carb/ketogenic diet combined with antioxidant therapy and liver detox can be beneficial in managing the condition.

A low-carb/ketogenic diet helps reduce inflammation in the body, including in the gallbladder[1]. It also promotes weight loss, which can alleviate pressure on the gallbladder and reduce symptoms[2].

Antioxidant therapy with vitamins like vitamin C, E, and selenium can help neutralize free radicals and reduce oxidative stress, which contributes to gallbladder inflammation[3].

A liver detox can help improve bile flow and flush out toxins that may be irritating the gallbladder[4]. This can involve:

– Increasing intake of bitter foods like arugula, dandelion greens, and artichokes to stimulate bile production.
– Consuming liver-supporting herbs like milk thistle, turmeric, and dandelion root.
– Avoiding alcohol, processed foods, and excessive fat intake to reduce liver burden.

It’s important to stay hydrated and consume adequate fiber to promote regular bowel movements and prevent bile stagnation[1][4].

Apple cider vinegar can also be beneficial as the malic acid helps thin bile and improve digestion[1].

While this combined approach can help manage chronic cholecystitis, it’s crucial to work closely with a healthcare professional, especially if considering gallbladder removal surgery. Proper medical supervision is necessary to monitor the condition and adjust the treatment plan as needed.


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Synergistic Effects between Niacin and Vitamins/Micronutrients

Niacin (vitamin B3) has been found to have synergistic effects with several other vitamins and micronutrients:

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
The combination of niacin and omega-3 fatty acids demonstrated a synergistic effect, significantly increasing LDL apoE/apoB ratios and LDL apoA1/apoB ratios, suggesting an enhanced cardiovascular benefit from the combination therapy[1].

Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid
Combining vitamin B12 with folic acid supplements optimizes the reduction in homocysteine levels, potentially amplifying the advantages in preventing cardiovascular disease[1].

Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin E
The combination of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E significantly reduced LDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol, reduced atherogenic coefficient, and decreased visceral adiposity index in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, while the individual supplements did not have these effects[1].

Zinc and Vitamin A
Combined zinc and vitamin A supplementation synergistically reduced the prevalence of persistent diarrhea and dysentery in children[2]. Zinc and vitamin A also had a synergistic effect on improving biochemical indexes of vitamin A nutrition[2].

Niacin and chromium have synergistic effects on blood sugar levels[4].

Other B Vitamins
Niacin acts synergistically with all B vitamins, especially vitamin B1 (thiamine)[4].

Vitamin C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and nicotinamide (a form of vitamin B3) have been found to exhibit synergistic antimicrobial effects. [6-10]

In summary, key micronutrients that exhibit synergistic effects with niacin include omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, folic acid, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E, zinc, vitamin A, chromium, and other B vitamins like thiamine[1][2][4]. These synergistic combinations can potentially enhance cardiovascular health, nutrient status, and metabolic parameters.


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Synergistic Effects between Vitamins/Micronutrients & NIR/PBMT

Several vitamins, micronutrients, and supplements have been studied for potential synergistic effects when combined with near-infrared (NIR) or photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT):

Mitochondrial Support and Electron Donors
– Methylene blue: Acts as a photosensitizer and electron cycler, enhancing mitochondrial respiration.[1][2]
– Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol): A key component of the electron transport chain, may amplify mitochondrial effects of PBMT.[1][4]
– Quercetin: An antioxidant that can donate electrons and enhance mitochondrial biogenesis.[4]

Nitric Oxide Donors
– L-arginine and L-citrulline: Precursors for nitric oxide (NO) production, which is increased by PBMT and promotes vasodilation.[4]

– N-acetyl cysteine (NAC): Boosts glutathione levels and may enhance PBMT’s effects on oxidative stress.[1][2]
– Molecular hydrogen: A selective antioxidant that may potentiate PBMT’s benefits.[4]
– Vitamin C: An antioxidant, but high doses may inhibit PBMT’s initial reactive oxygen species signaling.[1][2][4]

## Metals
– Iron and copper: Essential for mitochondrial function and energy production, deficiencies may limit PBMT efficacy.[4]

– Niacinamide (vitamin B3): Protects against blue light and UV damage that could interfere with PBMT.[4]
– Carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin): Antioxidants that may enhance photoprotection.[4]

It’s important to note that while some supplements may enhance PBMT’s effects, high doses of certain antioxidants like vitamin C could potentially inhibit the initial reactive oxygen species signaling required for PBMT’s therapeutic mechanisms.[1][2][4] Proper dosing and timing of supplements in relation to PBMT may be crucial for optimal synergy.


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Niacin for Alzheimer’s disease

Niacin, a form of vitamin B3, has shown promise as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease based on recent research:

Researchers at the Indiana University School of Medicine found that niacin, when used in animal models, can limit the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.[1][2][3] They discovered that niacin interacts with a receptor called HCAR2 present in immune cells associated with amyloid plaques in the brain. Activating this receptor through niacin stimulates beneficial actions from these immune cells, leading to fewer plaques and improved cognition in the animal models.[1][2][3]

Past epidemiological studies have also suggested that people with higher levels of niacin in their diet have a lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.[1][5] Additionally, niacin is currently being tested in clinical trials for other neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and glioblastoma.[1][2]

Based on these findings, researchers believe niacin is a promising therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease that warrants further clinical investigation. A pilot clinical trial is currently being planned to study the effects of niacin on the human brain.[1][2]

In summary, the available evidence indicates that niacin, an FDA-approved drug, may help modulate the immune response in the brain and slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. More research is needed, but niacin appears to be a potentially valuable therapeutic approach worth exploring.[1][2][3]


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Vitamin C for Alzheimer’s disease

Vitamin C plays an important role in the pathophysiology and potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD):

Several studies have found that vitamin C deficiency is associated with the progression of AD. Decreased plasma levels of vitamin C have been observed in AD patients[1]. Vitamin C is an essential antioxidant that is vital for proper neurological development and function[1]. Deficiency of vitamin C has been implicated in the disease progression of AD[1].

Treatment with high-dose vitamin C supplementation has been shown to have beneficial effects in AD. Studies in mouse models of AD found that high-dose vitamin C supplementation can reduce amyloid plaque burden in the brain, ameliorate blood-brain barrier disruption, and improve mitochondrial function[2][3]. This suggests that increasing vitamin C intake could be a protective strategy against AD-related pathologies[3].

Additionally, a critical review concluded that maintaining healthy vitamin C levels can have a protective function against age-related cognitive decline and AD[4]. However, the review also noted that simply taking vitamin C supplements may not be as beneficial as avoiding vitamin C deficiency through a healthy diet[4].

In summary, the evidence indicates that vitamin C deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of AD, and increasing vitamin C intake, either through diet or supplementation, may have therapeutic potential for slowing or preventing the progression of AD[1][2][3][4][5].


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Is Your Brain Inflamed?

Alzheimer’s disease is a complex condition that affects memory and thinking abilities. While scientists are still uncovering its exact causes, inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to be key factors. Imagine inflammation as a kind of internal swelling in the brain, and oxidative stress as damage caused by harmful molecules. These processes can harm brain cells and lead to the formation of plaques and tangles, which are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s. Unhealthy lifestyle habits like poor diet, lack of exercise, and chronic stress can worsen these problems. Additionally, exposure to certain toxins in our environment, like heavy metals and chemicals, may also play a role. Plus, deficiencies in essential vitamins and hormones might contribute to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s. By understanding these factors, we can take steps to support brain health and reduce our risk of Alzheimer’s disease.


Alzheimer’s disease is a multifactorial neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss. While its exact cause remains elusive, research suggests that inflammation and oxidative stress play significant roles in its development and progression. Inflammation in the brain, often referred to as neuroinflammation, leads to the activation of immune cells and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules, contributing to neuronal damage and dysfunction. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the body’s antioxidant defenses, resulting in cellular damage. These processes can disrupt neuronal communication and contribute to the formation of characteristic Alzheimer’s plaques and tangles in the brain. Additionally, various lifestyle factors, including poor diet, lack of exercise, chronic stress, and inadequate sleep, can exacerbate inflammation and oxidative stress, further increasing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, environmental factors such as exposure to heavy metals and chemicals may also contribute to neurodegeneration. Furthermore, deficiencies in essential vitamins and micronutrients, hormonal imbalances, and genetic predispositions are believed to play roles in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Understanding these multifaceted aspects of the disease is crucial for developing effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Oxidative stress is a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Oxidative stress, characterized by an imbalance between antioxidants and oxidants, is a major contributor to the neurodegeneration observed in AD. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals can damage lipids, proteins, and DNA in the brain, leading to cellular dysfunction and death.[1][2][3]

Oxidative stress is an early and prominent feature of AD, occurring even before the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles, the hallmark pathological hallmarks of the disease.[4] Studies have found increased markers of oxidative damage in the brains, cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and peripheral tissues of individuals with mild cognitive impairment and early-stage AD.[4][5]

Genetic and lifestyle risk factors for AD, such as mutations in presenilin genes and the apolipoprotein E genotype, are associated with increased oxidative stress.[2][4] Conversely, interventions that reduce oxidative stress, like caloric restriction, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation, have been shown to promote neuronal survival and potentially reduce the risk or progression of AD.[4][5]

In conclusion, overwhelming evidence from the search results indicates that oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, playing a central role in the neurodegeneration observed in this disorder.[1][2][3][4][5]


Effective antioxidants for brain protection

Based on the search results, several effective antioxidants have been shown to provide neuroprotection and protect the brain:

Antioxidants like carotenoids, vitamin E, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and flavonoids such as hesperidin can effectively inhibit oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, thereby preventing brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease.[1]

Enzymatic antioxidants in the brain like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) play a key role in protecting brain cells from oxidative damage.[2]

Non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin also help regulate oxidative stress and maintain brain homeostasis.[2]

Antioxidants that can readily cross the blood-brain barrier, like the pyrrolopyrimidine class of compounds, coenzyme Q10, and vitamin E derivatives, are particularly good therapeutic candidates for neurological disorders.[3]

Combining different types of antioxidants, such as vitamin E and vitamin C, or using antioxidants alongside other neuroprotective agents like iron chelators, may provide synergistic benefits in protecting the brain.[3]

Overall, the search results indicate that a variety of plant-derived and endogenous antioxidants can effectively protect the brain from oxidative stress-induced damage and neurodegeneration.[1][2][4]


Vitamin C for brain protection

Vitamin C plays an important protective role in the brain and is highly concentrated in certain brain regions like the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala.[1][2] Studies have shown several key mechanisms by which vitamin C benefits brain function:

– Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that scavenges reactive oxygen species and protects the brain from oxidative damage.[1][2][3]
– It is a cofactor for enzymes involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters like catecholamines and serotonin, supporting proper brain signaling.[1]
– Vitamin C promotes neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and synaptic plasticity, which are important for brain development and function.[2]
– It helps regulate calcium homeostasis and signaling in the brain, which is crucial for neuronal excitability and neuroprotection.[2]

Research indicates that vitamin C levels tend to decline with age and may be lower in certain neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s disease.[1][3][4][5] Supplementation with high-dose vitamin C has been shown to reduce amyloid plaque burden and improve pathological changes in animal models of Alzheimer’s.[5]

Overall, the evidence suggests vitamin C plays a vital role in maintaining healthy brain function, and ensuring adequate vitamin C status may help protect the brain, especially during aging and neurodegeneration.[1][2][3][4][5]


Niacin for brain protection

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, has several potential benefits for brain health and protection:

Niacin helps protect the brain from age-related cognitive decline. Studies have found that higher dietary intake of niacin is associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease and improved cognitive function with aging.[1][2][3] Niacin is required to form nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a vital molecule for cellular functions, and NAD levels decline with aging. Supplementation with niacin may help slow down cellular aging in the brain.[1]

Niacin protects brain cells from stress and injury. It promotes the growth, development, and survival of brain cells (neurons), especially after injury or oxygen stress.[1][5] Niacin has shown benefits in animal models of traumatic brain injury, stroke, and other brain insults, often when combined with other compounds.[5]

Niacin may help treat certain psychiatric disorders. Some research suggests niacin deficiency may be linked to conditions like schizophrenia, and niacin supplementation may help manage symptoms in these disorders by restoring mitochondrial energy metabolism and neurotransmitter balance.[5][3]

However, more research is still needed to fully understand niacin’s mechanisms and optimal therapeutic applications for brain health and protection. Consulting a healthcare provider is recommended before taking niacin supplements, as high doses can cause side effects.[4]

[1] Niacin slows aging and promotes brain health according to the information provided in[1].
[2] Higher dietary intake of niacin is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease, as stated in[1][2][3].
[3] Niacin may help treat certain psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, as discussed in[5][3].
[4] High doses of niacin supplements can cause side effects, so consulting a healthcare provider is recommended, as mentioned in[4].
[5] Niacin protects brain cells from stress and injury, as described in[1][5].


Low omega-6 PUFA intake for brain protection

Low omega-6 PUFA intake may be beneficial for brain protection, according to the search results:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for brain development and function. The ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 PUFAs is important, as it influences neurotransmission and other processes vital for normal brain function.[2]

Dietary deficiencies of long-chain PUFAs during brain development can impair neurodevelopment and cause permanent damage.[1] Increasing omega-3 PUFAs like EPA and DHA, while lowering omega-6 PUFAs like linoleic acid (LA), may provide optimal protection against conditions like depression.[1][3]

Some studies have found a negative relationship between omega-6 PUFA (specifically LA) intake and cognitive function.[4][5] This suggests that lowering omega-6 PUFA intake, particularly LA, may be beneficial for brain health and protection.[1][4]

In summary, the evidence indicates that a diet lower in omega-6 PUFAs, especially LA, and higher in omega-3 PUFAs like EPA and DHA, may be optimal for brain development and protection.[1][2][3]


High omega-3 PUFA intake for brain protection

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been shown to have beneficial effects on brain function and structure:

– Omega-3 PUFAs are essential components of neuronal cell membranes, comprising up to 40% of total brain fatty acids. They are crucial for normal brain development and function.[1][2]

– Higher omega-3 PUFA levels, as measured by the omega-3 index in red blood cells, are associated with larger hippocampal volumes and better abstract reasoning abilities in middle-aged adults.[3] The hippocampus is important for learning and memory.

– Omega-3 PUFA supplementation, especially EPA, has been linked to improvements in mood disorders, while DHA is more strongly associated with benefits in neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s disease.[2]

– In older adults with mild cognitive impairment, supplementation with omega-3s from fish oil has been shown to improve memory and learning performance.[4]

– The omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and may help protect the brain from the detrimental effects of a high saturated fat diet.[5]

In summary, the evidence suggests that maintaining adequate omega-3 PUFA intake, particularly through dietary sources like fatty fish, may help preserve brain structure and function, especially as we age. Omega-3 supplementation may also provide benefits for those with mild cognitive impairments.[1][2][3][4][5]


Low carb/ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting for brain protection

The search results provide evidence that a low-carb ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting can have neuroprotective effects and benefits for brain health:

– The ketogenic diet, which is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, has shown promise in animal models and some clinical studies for protecting the brain against damage and improving cognitive function in conditions like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury.[1][3][4]

– The mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet may confer neuroprotection include increasing resistance to metabolic stress, enhancing alternative energy substrates like ketone bodies, and stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis.[3]

– Intermittent fasting, which involves periods of calorie restriction alternating with normal food intake, has also demonstrated potential benefits for brain health and cognitive function in animal studies. It may work through metabolic, cellular, and circadian mechanisms.[2]

– While the evidence is still limited, some studies have found intermittent fasting may help with conditions like epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and mood/anxiety disorders.[2]

– The ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting appear to have complementary mechanisms of action in supporting brain function, such as elevating ketone bodies as an alternative brain fuel source.[1][2]

In summary, the available research indicates that a low-carb ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting regimens may offer neuroprotective benefits and help maintain or improve brain health, though more longitudinal studies and clinical trials are still needed to fully understand their effects.[1][2][4]


BHRT (Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy) for brain protection

BHRT, or bioidentical hormone replacement therapy, may offer some protection against brain fog, cognitive decline, and even Alzheimer’s disease in women, but the timing and type of BHRT used is crucial.

The key points are:

– BHRT with estrogen and progesterone can help restore hormonal balance and alleviate brain fog and poor focus during perimenopause and menopause.[1] The pellet form of BHRT is convenient and allows for steady hormone release.

– Estrogen has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, promoting neuronal growth, reducing inflammation, and supporting brain function.[2][3] Estrogen-only BHRT in midlife (40s-50s) may reduce the risk of dementia by up to 32%.[5]

– However, starting BHRT too late, after age 65 or more than 10 years after menopause, may not provide the same benefits and could even increase the risk of dementia, especially if using a combination of estrogen and progesterone.[4][5]

– The timing of BHRT initiation appears crucial, with the “critical window” hypothesis suggesting BHRT is most beneficial when started around the time of menopause.[4]

– BHRT may be particularly helpful for women who are APOE4 carriers, a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s, as it has been associated with larger brain volumes in these individuals.[4]

In summary, BHRT can be a promising approach to protect brain health, but the optimal timing and formulation is important. Consulting with a provider experienced in BHRT is recommended to determine if it is the right choice.[1][3]



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American Heart Association’s Irresponsible News Release of the Intermittent Fasting Study

American Heart Association’s Irresponsible News Release of the Intermittent Fasting Study (

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Integrative Orthomolecular Medicine Recommendations for Infection Management

This is for information exchange only.  Seek medical attention when necessary.

  • Healthy lifestyle: sleep, exercise.
  • Diet: Low-carb diet, avoid ultra-processed foods, avoid seed oils (high Ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids or Ω-6 PUFA).
  • Nutritional supplements:
    • Vitamin C, 5,000-10,000 mg/day.
    • Or liposomal vitamin C, 1000-2000 mg/day.
    • B Vitamins,
    • Vitamin D3, 5,000 to 10,000 IU daily, make sure to maintain blood Vit d3 levels between 50 and  100 ng/ml.
    • Vitamin E, 200 IU/day.
    • Zinc: 25-30mg/day.
    • Liposomal glutathione, 1,000mg/day.
    • Or NAC (n-acetylcysteine): 1,000-1,500 mg/day.
    • Magnesium: 500-1,000 mg/day.
    • CoQ10: 200-400 mg/day.
    • Quercetin, 1,500 mg/day.
    • 3% hydrogen peroxide nebulization, when needed.
    • Other antioxidants such as melatonin.
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